FAQ - Bitcoin

Bitcoin - The Currency of the Internet

A community dedicated to Bitcoin, the currency of the Internet. Bitcoin is a distributed, worldwide, decentralized digital money. Bitcoins are issued and managed without any central authority whatsoever: there is no government, company, or bank in charge of Bitcoin. You might be interested in Bitcoin if you like cryptography, distributed peer-to-peer systems, or economics. A large percentage of Bitcoin enthusiasts are libertarians, though people of all political philosophies are welcome.
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Buttercoin Project

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BetterBitcoin

BetterBitcoin is a subreddit for news, discussion and jokes about the currency of the internet (or the internet of currency): Bitcoin.
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Simple Security Token Offering User Guide and STO FAQ for Crypto Investors - Bitcoin Exchange Guide

Simple Security Token Offering User Guide and STO FAQ for Crypto Investors - Bitcoin Exchange Guide submitted by prnewswireadmin to cryptonewswire [link] [comments]

FAQ: Chinese ban on BTC exchanges and the future of Bitcoin

Is BitFinex (the largest BTC exchange by volume) being shut down?
People keep asking if this ban affects BitFinex. No, it doesn't because BitFinex is owned by iFinex Inc. (BVI) which is registered and located in Road Town, British Virgin Islands. Source: https://www.bitfinex.com/legal/terms
What exchanges are being shut down? Is this official?
The three other big Chinese exchanges, namely OKCoin.cn, Huobi, BTC China (BTCC) are in the process of being temporarily delisted. Source: https://www.okcoin.com/t-496.html No one can say for sure when and if the ban will be lifted. It's plausible that all other China based exchanges will be shut down or delisted, but they haven't released statements yet. Meanwhile Caixing has released this statement: "Local Regulator Orders All Beijing-Based Cryptocurrency Exchanges To Close. By midnight on Sept. 15, all Beijing-based cryptocurrency exchanges must halt new user registration and issue a public notice detailing when the exchange will formally close, according to a policy document seen by Caixin and confirmed by a source close to regulators".
What other companies are affected?
ViaBTC is shutting down its operations as well. Source: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-bitcoin-china-viabtc/viabtc-becomes-second-china-bitcoin-trading-platform-to-shut-down-idUSKCN1BQ0MG?il=0 It's worth noting that ViaBTC is also a prominent miner and Bitcoin's network hashing power might be affected. They are the only miner which allows you to accelerate transactions with low fees for free: https://pool.viabtc.com/tools/txaccelerato
Is this a permanent ban?
No one except certain Chinese authorities knows. However in the past China has never done something at this scale, so, with a high degree of confidence one can say that it will be indefinite, or at the very least will last at least several months.
What's the bottom of Bitcoin's price?
No one knows. People theorized that Bitcoin's price wouldn't be significantly affected because Chinese exchanges trading volume recently had been declining but it's turned out Chinese Bitcoin holders had enough Bitcoins to drive the markets down by almost 40% already (4900->3000).
When will Bitcoin rebound to its ATH?
No one knows. Considering that multiple investors have been burned by this ban, there might be several scenarios:
Both variants are wild guesses, so, we might as well have something in between.
I bought Bitcoin at XXXX where XXXX >> current Bitcoin price? Should I sell now or HODL?
As a trader you might average down because it's plausible that Bitcoin will eventually rebound. It's also plausible that the cryptocurrency market will crash so much its recovery will take years or even a decade. Or it will never recover.
This has been repeated numerous times, but let's say it once again: When you invest in crypto currencies you should prepare yourself to lose it all. Too many people have come into Bitcoin for a quick buck and it has backfired.
People all around say I should invest into Bitcoin now, because ... Should I listen to them?*
None of them know what will happen next. If they could predict the future with certainty you wouldn't be seeing them in this reddit. They would be cruising around the world on their yacht. What you hear is gut feelings, experience and assumptions. In other words, wild baseless guesstimates. Yes, at one point Bitcoin reached $4900 but the growth wasn't caused by real world factors, it was dictated mostly by speculation. And now we all see how it turned out.
I've noticed a spike by $XXX dollars now, should I go in and buy?
At the time of writing (UTC 12:00pm 2017-09-15) this is mostly a local spike and the downward trend will likely continue for the next five days.
What's the effect on Chinese miners, and by extension the bitcoin tech?
Currently only ViaBTC has announced that they are shutting down. All other Chinese miners haven't made any statements but their operation in China is open to question because it's not clear how they will turn their mined Bitcoins into real money which is required to run their business and pay their bills.
The Bitcoin tech is not likely to be severely affected because other countries have announced the plans to run mining operations.
submitted by anestling to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

From April 22, 2015 FAQs Regarding Filing of Bankruptcy Claims by MTGOX Bitcoin Exchange Users

Q36: What are subordinate bankruptcy claims? A: Under the Japanese Bankruptcy Law, certain claims such as delay damages after the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings are given a subordinated status, meaning that they are subject to bankruptcy distribution after bankruptcy distributions of 100% of the ordinary bankruptcy claims are made, and they are referred to as subordinate bankruptcy claims. Delay damages accrue on a daily basis after the commencement of bankruptcy proceedings, but the amounts are not fixed, so Users file claims for delay damages (the actual amount of which is not yet fixed) as subordinate bankruptcy claims. In Japanese bankruptcy proceedings, there are almost no examples of bankruptcy distributions of subordinate bankruptcy claims, and in these proceedings too, it is not currently anticipated that such bankruptcy distributions will be made.
Thanks to the user that noticed this.
Edit: credit to u/bitdugo for spotting this.
submitted by andypagonthemove to mtgoxinsolvency [link] [comments]

BTCC - FAQ About BTCChina Exchanges Implementation of Fee-Based Trading /r/Bitcoin

BTCC - FAQ About BTCChina Exchanges Implementation of Fee-Based Trading /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

FAQ: Chinese ban on BTC exchanges and the future of Bitcoin /r/Bitcoin

FAQ: Chinese ban on BTC exchanges and the future of Bitcoin /Bitcoin submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Use potcoinescrow to get Potcoin with USD fast! No need for exchange fees (trade+withdraw). Skip the debit/credit card fees charged from buying Bitcoin instantly. We do it all in one step. Easy! FAQ

potcoinescrow http://www.reddit.com/PotcoinEscrow/comments/21g9m8/welcome_potcoinescrowcom_is_here_to_serve_you
Potcoinescrow Service Pricing
We have a tiered membership that offers base fee discounts and special offers. Escrow fees are set at a 4.2% base fee, memberships coming soon, please inquire about memberships. ([email protected]) 1.1% is donated to humanitarian outreach, 1.1% is donated to mmj research, And 2% is allocated to operating costs.
"By using potcoinescrow.com services you avoid these costs (fees charged by the major exchanges, withdraw+trade fees) + (fees incured from converting to BTC using instant methods like VISA or MasterCard). In addition, it's a much easier process getting Potcoin here at potcoinescrow. By using our service you eliminate the need to convert to Bitcoin and then to Potcoin via one of the popular exchanges. We hold Potcoin and are able to bring it to you quicly at market value. The way we mitigate our risk is by spreading our investments accross the markets. Because all three markets are tied to each other, BTC, POT, USD, we set our daily trade caps based on the volume of the markets. This way we dont ever overextend ourselves, but are still able to deliver as much Potcoin as possible each day."
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Have a specific question? Were here to help you through the process. POTminer Support Team [email protected]
submitted by POTminer to potcoin [link] [comments]

Bit Coin is the opposite of anonymous.

I see a lot of people are having a hard time understanding bit coin.
Naturally, bit coin the the most tracked and easy to tracked system of money.
It was not created to be secretive. It was created to make a system of money that would stand alone from government and not be susceptible to normal problems with money.
It records every transaction, tied to an account, tied to you.
Any time you want to get money in, or get money out, aka turn bit coin into currency, you tell the world who you are. And all your transactions are recorded.
It’s the type of system a government could easily abuse.
submitted by Reddit_IsPropaganda to conspiracy [link] [comments]

Alexa now has a Bitcoin category and subcategories (Exchanges; FAQs, Help, and Tutorials; Games; Mining; News and Media; Payment Processors; Services; Wallets)

Alexa now has a Bitcoin category and subcategories (Exchanges; FAQs, Help, and Tutorials; Games; Mining; News and Media; Payment Processors; Services; Wallets) submitted by btc88 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

FAQs Regarding Filing, Etc. Bankruptcy Claims by MTGOX Bitcoin Exchange Users

submitted by -Mahn to mtgoxinsolvency [link] [comments]

FAQs Regarding Filing of Bankruptcy Claims by MTGOX Bitcoin Exchange Users

submitted by DrRodneyMckay to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

My friend introduced me to Bitcoin

A friend is trying to get me to invest in Bitcoin through a company that employs a pyramid format (I bring in 6 people, we all pay a one time $50 fee to buy a portion of a Bitcoin, then bingo, we're making $150 an hour! Or just me and they have to bring in their own 6 people to make money... still working on researching it all). As a college student, it would be nice to be able to get ahead on paying for college and saving for the world after, but would it be better for me to simply buy my own Bitcoin instead of going through a company? Or does anyone have any reputable Bitcoin trading/investment companies they could recommend l look into? I'm not looking to buy anything yet, but I'm interested in getting a broader perspective.
submitted by H0l0Stars to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

The Unofficial Cardano FAQ - V3

(if you would like to add information or see mistakes, just comment below and I will credit you)
What is Cardano? Cardano is an open source and permissionless "Third Generation" blockchain project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values, and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm known as Ouroboros to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules (smart contracts) when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IOHK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another development team - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Among these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work - which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
What were the other two generations of blockchain? Gen 1 was Bitcoin. It exists by itself and talks to nobody but Bitcoin. It is capable of peer to peer transactions without a third party in such a way that you cannot cheat the system. This was a major step forward for the E-cash concept that people have been working on for the 20 years prior.
Gen 2 was Ethereum and other smart-contract platforms that allow other coins and platforms to be built on top of their infrastructure. These coins can interact with others on the platform, but cannot interact with other platforms. Meaning it is still not truly interoperable. Most Gen 2 blockchains are also using Proof of Work likes Bitcoin, which effects scaling. Also missing is a built-in method to pay for upgrades and voting mechanics for decision making.
Gen 3 blockchains are a complete package designed to replace the current financial infrastructure of the world. Cardano is using Proof of Stake to ensure security and decentralisation(Shelley). Scaling through parallel computation (Hydra in Basho), Sidechains to allow the platform to interact with other platforms (Basho), and also include mechanisms for voting for project funding, changes to the protocol and improvement proposals (Voltaire). Finally smart contracts platform for new and established projects that are developer friendly (Goguen).
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain.
www.Cardano.org www.emurgo.io https://cardanofoundation.org/en/
What is the difference between Proof of Work and Proof of stake? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half validators agree, then the ledger is updated and the transaction is now secured. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner is elected to solve an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice. At the moment there are 8 main mining operations for bitcoin, and 4 of them make up more that 51% of the mining power.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano? Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
What is staking Cardano is a Proof of Stake protocol, and uses already existing coins like a marker to ensure security. The protocol chooses a coin at random and the owner of that coin is elected to validate a block of transactions. Staking is the process of adding your ADA coins to a Pool that has the resources to run the network. If the pool you have chosen to "delegate" your stake to is chosen to close/validate a block, then you get a portion of the rewards. The ADA never leaves your wallet, and you can "undelegate" whenever you like. this increases stability of the network and also gives an incentive to pool operators to invest the time and hardware required to run a pool.
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? Cardano.org FAQ on the issue goes into much more detail
A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. During ITN there was 1200 registered stake pools while 300 were creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? The staking testnet has closed, If you participated in the Incentivised Test Net and earned rewards, instructions to check the balance are here.
However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until the Shelley mainnet launch happening at the end of July 2020.
Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options. Adalite and several other third-party wallets also exist. Coinbase will also allow staking as a custodial service, and many exchanges may offer “staking as a service” so you can leave your coins on the exchange and still earn rewards if you enjoy trading. I do not recommend leaving coins on an exchange unless you are actively trading.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? The Incentivised Test Net (ITN) Delivered 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic.
Check https://staking.cardano.org/en/calculato for a clearer picture.
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 50 pools with a 1,00ADA pledge each will be overall less profitable than 1-2 pool with the max ADA pledge (unknown but likely around 300k). Even if the 50 pools have the same over stake delegated by other users and have a better chance of being selected to close a block, the 50 pools may receive lower rewards.. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atala, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an early adopter of cryptocurrencies, American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles Co-founded Ethereum with Vitalik Buterin and 5-8 others, However he only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? Cardano and coinbase have recently connected in a big way. With IOHK turning over all their ADA to the custodial services of Coinbase. This means that Cardano and Coinbase have been working together for some time and there is a strong partnership forming. Staking and cold storage will be available and trading on Coinbase will most likely become available after the release of Shelley (although no official word yet)
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
Cardano does have a dedicated community driven wiki
https://cardanowiki.info/wiki/Home
What is Atala and why do I care?*
Atala is a suite of services being developed on top of the cardano blockchain by IOHK that focusses on credential certification, for things like education, work history and degrees (Atala Prism). Product counterfeiting protection through registering products on a blockchain and create taper-proof provenance. This does not only apply to Gucci handbags, but also medication, art, and anything that can be counterfeited (Atala Scan). As well as supply chain tracking to see issues and inefficiencies with greater transparency(Atala Trace).
Im new, how much is a good investment?
Cardano is still a speculative market and although there is amazing potential here, it is still only potential. When investing in any High risk market like Crypto, only every invest what you are willing to lose. Cardano may be testing the 10c barrier now. But in March it dumped to 1.7c. And if you suddenly need your money back during the dump then you are out of luck. Do your research before you FOMO in. Start with a small amount and send it between wallets and exchanges to understand how the system works. Store your private keys offline (or online cloud service but encrypted) with a method that is unlikely to be damaged AND have multiple copies. So in the case of a house fire or a blow to the head, or the cloud service being shutdown/destroyed, you do not lose your money.
Timelines
https://roadmap.cardano.org/en/
Shelley Decentralisation rollout and news
Goguen smart contract rollout
Voltaire Voting mechanics – no official roll out timeline (though promised for 2020)
Basho scaling and sidechains – no official roll out time line (most likely 2021)
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

ETHE & GBTC (Grayscale) Frequently Asked Questions

It is no doubt Grayscale’s booming popularity as a mainstream investment has caused a lot of community hullabaloo lately. As such, I felt it was worth making a FAQ regarding the topic. I’m looking to update this as needed and of course am open to suggestions / adding any questions.
The goal is simply to have a thread we can link to anyone with questions on Grayscale and its products. Instead of explaining the same thing 3 times a day, shoot those posters over to this thread. My hope is that these questions are answered in a fairly simple and easy to understand manner. I think as the sub grows it will be a nice reference point for newcomers.
Disclaimer: I do NOT work for Grayscale and as such am basing all these answers on information that can be found on their website / reports. (Grayscale’s official FAQ can be found here). I also do NOT have a finance degree, I do NOT have a Series 6 / 7 / 140-whatever, and I do NOT work with investment products for my day job. I have an accounting background and work within the finance world so I have the general ‘business’ knowledge to put it all together, but this is all info determined in my best faith effort as a layman. The point being is this --- it is possible I may explain something wrong or missed the technical terms, and if that occurs I am more than happy to update anything that can be proven incorrect
Everything below will be in reference to ETHE but will apply to GBTC as well. If those two segregate in any way, I will note that accordingly.
What is Grayscale? 
Grayscale is the company that created the ETHE product. Their website is https://grayscale.co/
What is ETHE? 
ETHE is essentially a stock that intends to loosely track the price of ETH. It does so by having each ETHE be backed by a specific amount of ETH that is held on chain. Initially, the newly minted ETHE can only be purchased by institutions and accredited investors directly from Grayscale. Once a year has passed (6 months for GBTC) it can then be listed on the OTCQX Best Market exchange for secondary trading. Once listed on OTCQX, anyone investor can purchase at this point. Additional information on ETHE can be found here.
So ETHE is an ETF? 
No. For technical reasons beyond my personal understandings it is not labeled an ETF. I know it all flows back to the “Securities Act Rule 144”, but due to my limited knowledge on SEC regulations I don’t want to misspeak past that. If anyone is more knowledgeable on the subject I am happy to input their answer here.
How long has ETHE existed? 
ETHE was formed 12/14/2017. GBTC was formed 9/25/2013.
How is ETHE created? 
The trust will issue shares to “Authorized Participants” in groups of 100 shares (called baskets). Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create these baskets and they do it on behalf of the investor.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 39 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Note – The way their reports word this makes it sound like there is an army of authorizers doing the dirty work, but in reality there is only one Authorized Participant. At this moment the “Genesis” company is the sole Authorized Participant. Genesis is owned by the “Digital Currency Group, Inc.” which is the parent company of Grayscale as well. (And to really go down the rabbit hole it looks like DCG is the parent company of CoinDesk and is “backing 150+ companies across 30 countries, including Coinbase, Ripple, and Chainalysis.”)
Source: Digital Currency Group, Inc. informational section on page 77 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
Source: Barry E. Silbert informational section on page 75 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
How does Grayscale acquire the ETH to collateralize the ETHE product? 
An Investor may acquire ETHE by paying in cash or exchanging ETH already owned.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 40 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Where does Grayscale store their ETH? Does it have a specific wallet address we can follow? 
ETH is stored with Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC. I am unaware of any specific address or set of addresses that can be used to verify the ETH is actually there.
As an aside - I would actually love to see if anyone knows more about this as it’s something that’s sort of peaked my interest after being asked about it… I find it doubtful we can find that however.
Source: Part C. Business Information, Item 8, subsection A. on page 16 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Can ETHE be redeemed for ETH? 
No, currently there is no way to give your shares of ETHE back to Grayscale to receive ETH back. The only method of getting back into ETH would be to sell your ETHE to someone else and then use those proceeds to buy ETH yourself.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Why are they not redeeming shares? 
I think the report summarizes it best:
Redemptions of Shares are currently not permitted and the Trust is unable to redeem Shares. Subject to receipt of regulatory approval from the SEC and approval by the Sponsor in its sole discretion, the Trust may in the future operate a redemption program. Because the Trust does not believe that the SEC would, at this time, entertain an application for the waiver of rules needed in order to operate an ongoing redemption program, the Trust currently has no intention of seeking regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the fee structure? 
ETHE has an annual fee of 2.5%. GBTC has an annual fee of 2.0%. Fees are paid by selling the underlying ETH / BTC collateralizing the asset.
Source: ETHE’s informational page on Grayscale’s website - Located Here
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 & 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the ratio of ETH to ETHE? 
At the time of posting (6/19/2020) each ETHE share is backed by .09391605 ETH. Each share of GBTC is backed by .00096038 BTC.
ETHE & GBTC’s specific information page on Grayscale’s website updates the ratio daily – Located Here
For a full historical look at this ratio, it can be found on the Grayscale home page on the upper right side if you go to Tax Documents > 2019 Tax Documents > Grayscale Ethereum Trust 2019 Tax Letter.
Why is the ratio not 1:1? Why is it always decreasing? 
While I cannot say for certain why the initial distribution was not a 1:1 backing, it is more than likely to keep the price down and allow more investors a chance to purchase ETHE / GBTC.
As noted above, fees are paid by selling off the ETH collateralizing ETHE. So this number will always be trending downward as time goes on.
Source: Description of Trust on page 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
I keep hearing about how this is locked supply… explain? 
As noted above, there is currently no redemption program for converting your ETHE back into ETH. This means that once an ETHE is issued, it will remain in circulation until a redemption program is formed --- something that doesn’t seem to be too urgent for the SEC or Grayscale at the moment. Tiny amounts will naturally be removed due to fees, but the bulk of the asset is in there for good.
Knowing that ETHE cannot be taken back and destroyed at this time, the ETH collateralizing it will not be removed from the wallet for the foreseeable future. While it is not fully locked in the sense of say a totally lost key, it is not coming out any time soon.
Per their annual statement:
The Trust’s ETH will be transferred out of the ETH Account only in the following circumstances: (i) transferred to pay the Sponsor’s Fee or any Additional Trust Expenses, (ii) distributed in connection with the redemption of Baskets (subject to the Trust’s obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program and the consent of the Sponsor), (iii) sold on an as-needed basis to pay Additional Trust Expenses or (iv) sold on behalf of the Trust in the event the Trust terminates and liquidates its assets or as otherwise required by law or regulation.
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Grayscale now owns a huge chunk of both ETH and BTC’s supply… should we be worried about manipulation, a sell off to crash the market crash, a staking cartel? 
First, it’s important to remember Grayscale is a lot more akin to an exchange then say an investment firm. Grayscale is working on behalf of its investors to create this product for investor control. Grayscale doesn’t ‘control’ the ETH it holds any more then Coinbase ‘controls’ the ETH in its hot wallet. (Note: There are likely some varying levels of control, but specific to this topic Grayscale cannot simply sell [legally, at least] the ETH by their own decision in the same manner Coinbase wouldn't be able to either.)
That said, there shouldn’t be any worry in the short to medium time-frame. As noted above, Grayscale can’t really remove ETH other than for fees or termination of the product. At 2.5% a year, fees are noise in terms of volume. Grayscale seems to be the fastest growing product in the crypto space at the moment and termination of the product seems unlikely.
IF redemptions were to happen tomorrow, it’s extremely unlikely we would see a mass exodus out of the product to redeem for ETH. And even if there was incentive to get back to ETH, the premium makes it so that it would be much more cost effective to just sell your ETHE on the secondary market and buy ETH yourself. Remember, any redemption is up to the investors and NOT something Grayscale has direct control over.
Yes, but what about [insert criminal act here]… 
Alright, yes. Technically nothing is stopping Grayscale from selling all the ETH / BTC and running off to the Bahamas (Hawaii?). BUT there is no real reason for them to do so. Barry is an extremely public figure and it won’t be easy for him to get away with that. Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust creates SEC reports weekly / bi-weekly and I’m sure given the sentiment towards crypto is being watched carefully. Plus, Grayscale is making tons of consistent revenue and thus has little to no incentive to give that up for a quick buck.
That’s a lot of ‘happy little feels’ Bob, is there even an independent audit or is this Tether 2.0? 
Actually yes, an independent auditor report can be found in their annual reports. It is clearly aimed more towards the financial side and I doubt the auditors are crypto savants, but it is at least one extra set of eyes. Auditors are Friedman LLP – Auditor since 2015.
Source: Independent Auditor Report starting on page 116 (of the PDF itself) of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
As mentioned by user TheCrpytosAndBloods (In Comments Below), a fun fact:
The company’s auditors Friedman LLP were also coincidentally TetheBitfinex’s auditors until They controversially parted ways in 2018 when the Tether controversy was at its height. I am not suggesting for one moment that there is anything shady about DCG - I just find it interesting it’s the same auditor.
“Grayscale sounds kind of lame” / “Not your keys not your crypto!” / “Why is anyone buying this, it sounds like a scam?” 
Welp, for starters this honestly is not really a product aimed at the people likely to be reading this post. To each their own, but do remember just because something provides no value to you doesn’t mean it can’t provide value to someone else. That said some of the advertised benefits are as follows:
So for example, I can set up an IRA at a brokerage account that has $0 trading fees. Then I can trade GBTC and ETHE all day without having to worry about tracking my taxes. All with the relative safety something like E-Trade provides over Binance.
As for how it benefits the everyday ETH holder? I think the supply lock is a positive. I also think this product exposes the Ethereum ecosystem to people who otherwise wouldn’t know about it.
Why is there a premium? Why is ETHE’s premium so insanely high compared to GBTC’s premium? 
There are a handful of theories of why a premium exists at all, some even mentioned in the annual report. The short list is as follows:
Why is ETHE’s so much higher the GBTC’s? Again, a few thoughts:

Are there any other differences between ETHE and GBTC? 
I touched on a few of the smaller differences, but one of the more interesting changes is GBTC is now a “SEC reporting company” as of January 2020. Which again goes beyond my scope of knowledge so I won’t comment on it too much… but the net result is GBTC is now putting out weekly / bi-weekly 8-K’s and annual 10-K’s. This means you can track GBTC that much easier at the moment as well as there is an extra layer of validity to the product IMO.
I’m looking for some statistics on ETHE… such as who is buying, how much is bought, etc? 
There is a great Q1 2020 report I recommend you give a read that has a lot of cool graphs and data on the product. It’s a little GBTC centric, but there is some ETHE data as well. It can be found here hidden within the 8-K filings.Q1 2020 is the 4/16/2020 8-K filing.
For those more into a GAAP style report see the 2019 annual 10-K of the same location.
Is Grayscale only just for BTC and ETH? 
No, there are other products as well. In terms of a secondary market product, ETCG is the Ethereum Classic version of ETHE. Fun Fact – ETCG was actually put out to the secondary market first. It also has a 3% fee tied to it where 1% of it goes to some type of ETC development fund.
In terms of institutional and accredited investors, there are a few ‘fan favorites’ such as Bitcoin Cash, Litcoin, Stellar, XRP, and Zcash. Something called Horizion (Backed by ZEN I guess? Idk to be honest what that is…). And a diversified Mutual Fund type fund that has a little bit of all of those. None of these products are available on the secondary market.
Are there alternatives to Grayscale? 
I know they exist, but I don’t follow them. I’ll leave this as a “to be edited” section and will add as others comment on what they know.
Per user Over-analyser (in comments below):
Coinshares (Formerly XBT provider) are the only similar product I know of. BTC, ETH, XRP and LTC as Exchange Traded Notes (ETN).
It looks like they are fully backed with the underlying crypto (no premium).
https://coinshares.com/etps/xbt-provideinvestor-resources/daily-hedging-position
Denominated in SEK and EUR. Certainly available in some UK pensions (SIPP).
As asked by pegcity - Okay so I was under the impression you can just give them your own ETH and get ETHE, but do you get 11 ETHE per ETH or do you get the market value of ETH in USD worth of ETHE? 
I have always understood that the ETHE issued directly through Grayscale is issued without the premium. As in, if I were to trade 1 ETH for ETHE I would get 11, not say only 2 or 3 because the secondary market premium is so high. And if I were paying cash only I would be paying the price to buy 1 ETH to get my 11 ETHE. Per page 39 of their annual statement, it reads as follows:
The Trust will issue Shares to Authorized Participants from time to time, but only in one or more Baskets (with a Basket being a block of 100 Shares). The Trust will not issue fractions of a Basket. The creation (and, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redemption) of Baskets will be made only in exchange for the delivery to the Trust, or the distribution by the Trust, of the number of whole and fractional ETH represented by each Basket being created (or, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redeemed), which is determined by dividing (x) the number of ETH owned by the Trust at 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the trade date of a creation or redemption order, after deducting the number of ETH representing the U.S. dollar value of accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust (converted using the ETH Index Price at such time, and carried to the eighth decimal place), by (y) the number of Shares outstanding at such time (with the quotient so obtained calculated to one one-hundred-millionth of one ETH (i.e., carried to the eighth decimal place)), and multiplying such quotient by 100 (the “Basket ETH Amount”). All questions as to the calculation of the Basket ETH Amount will be conclusively determined by the Sponsor and will be final and binding on all persons interested in the Trust. The Basket ETH Amount multiplied by the number of Baskets being created or redeemed is the “Total Basket ETH Amount.” The number of ETH represented by a Share will gradually decrease over time as the Trust’s ETH are used to pay the Trust’s expenses. Each Share represented approximately 0.0950 ETH and 0.0974 ETH as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

submitted by Bob-Rossi to ethfinance [link] [comments]

Why choose Bitcoin Cash?

Some of you might be coming to this sub, and wondering why so many people support Bitcoin Cash. This is directly answered in the pinned FAQ, and also briefly goes over the history of the sub. Now onto why Bitcoin Cash has huge potential when it comes to changing the world:
Bitcoin Cash was created with the purpose of bringing economic freedom to everyone all across the globe. With the current banking, financial, and payment systems, there are many issues when it comes to the usability of money. These issues are:
- Sending money across the globe without having to pay high fees (percentage fees), and waiting days or even weeks for your transfer to go through
- Having payment options like Visa and Mastercard that help deal with high-volume business, but having to pay a flat fee ($0.15), and a fee of 2%-3% per purchase
- Having full control over your money, so the government can't devalue your savings by printing more money for their personal interests
- Being able to use your money however you like, without having to get permission from an intermediary, middleman, or financial institution
- Being able to know how much money will be circulating at any given time in the future
- Paying high fees (4%+) for converting currency when travelling
Let's take a look at how Bitcoin Cash solves these problems:
Remittance
When it comes to sending money across the globe from one bank account to another, often times the fees will be very high because when your bank is sending money, it has to go through several intermediary banks that each take from the initial amount of money, making the process slow, and expensive. Currently, Western Union is advertising "free" transfers of currency across the globe. Seems like a good deal, right? Well here's the thing: they're tricking you into thinking that transfers are free when they're actually making money off of the exchange rate. We believe that money (digital cash) should be as frictionless as possible, and that a user shouldn't have to deal with transfer fees, and have to get permission to transfer their money from one bank to another. Currently, the fees on Bitcoin Cash are only $0.0007, and we plan on keeping them that low.
Payment Systems
When it comes to traditional payment systems, like Visa, Mastercard, and American Express, credit card companies often charge a 2%-3% fee on every transaction that takes place, and a transaction can take anywhere from 24-36 hours to confirm, and go into a merchant's bank account. These payment systems are both slow and expensive. With Bitcoin Cash, your funds are available instantly for you to spend, but if you want to take extra security measures, you can always wait ~10 minutes for a confirmation to go through.
Control Over Your Own Money
With the banking system as we currently know it, one of the biggest problems is the lack of control your have over your own money. Every year, people are forced to pay taxes to politicians only to have their money basically wasted on providing effectively nothing to them. Bitcoin Cash solves this problem by giving you full control over your money. Making a wallet does not require anyone to give ID, personal information, or anything that could potentially lead to the government having any say in what you can do with your hard-earned money. Another issue with traditional currencies is the inflationary nature of them. This is another form of taxation that doesn't appear to be as bad as taxing, but it's just a different way of taking money from the hands of citizens. When the government prints more money, your savings get devalued, meaning that the government has effectively stolen money without physically "stealing" it. With Bitcoin Cash, the inflation relies on a purely mathematical system in which the maximum number of Bitcoins will always be 21 million. With mathematical certainty, you can always be sure of the exact supply of Bitcoins based on the block number. I made a graph that helps illustrate this with >99.99997% accuracy on how many Bitcoin Cash will be in circulation based on the block height. This works for Bitcoin, and Bitcoin SV too. You can check the accuracy by putting the block height/number in the brackets of the second expression.
Currency Conversion
Have you ever travelled to another country where you had to convert to the local currency in order to be able to use it? If so, you would've realized that conversion rates can often be very high, and it is impractical to do unless you're converting a large sum of money. Our idea is to increase merchant adoption so that Bitcoin Cash can have its own economy, so it doesn't matter where in the world you are, you can always use Bitcoin Cash, and not have to worry about conversion fees. If you want to "convert" to another currency, you can always use SLP tokens that will eventually come in a variety of local fiat currencies in the near future. Tether USDT is already planning to make SLP tokens too. This is also a great alternative if you aren't sure whether you want to put your money into crypto, and want to stick with fiat instead. Think of SLP tokens as "paper" tokens on top of Bitcoin Cash that can be sent and received for fractions of a penny!
How to use Bitcoin Cash for Buying Goods and Services
Right now, there are many ways you can use Bitcoin Cash, including local usage, and online usage. If you want to see which merchants near you accept Bitcoin Cash, you can check using map.bitcoin.com and see which local merchants are accepting Bitcoin Cash. If you want to buy things online, you can use purse.io, and get 30% off on any Amazon purchase, so you contribute to the economy of growing Bitcoin Cash, and get a great deal for any item you want to buy!
TL;DR: Bitcoin Cash is sound money which you have full control over your own money, and allows you to send any amount of money, anywhere in the world, instantly, and practically for free. If you have any additional questions, feel free to comment.
Resources:
Bitcoin Inflation Graph: https://www.desmos.com/calculatolaijpbrh4s
Buy things on Amazon using Bitcoin Cash: https://purse.io/shop
purse.io chrome extension: https://chrome.google.com/webstore/detail/purse-shop-with-bitcoin-b/amdginnpaflghjbbdkfenpekaeifnpee
See which local merchants accept Bitcoin Cash: https://map.bitcoin.com/
Wallets with Bitcoin Cash: Electron Cash, Bitcoin.com Wallet, Exodus, Badger Wallet
Bitcoin Cash website: https://bitcoincash.org
submitted by 1MightBeAPenguin to btc [link] [comments]

Cardano FAQ - V2

Cardano FAQ
What is Cardano? Cardano is an open source highly secure "Third Generation" blockchain project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values, and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IOHK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Among these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work, which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
What were the other two generations of blockchain? Gen 1 was Bitcoin. It exists by itself and talks to nobody but bitcoin. It is capable of peer to peer transactions without a third party in such a way that you cannot cheat the system. this was a major step forward for the E-cash concept.
Gen 2 was Ethereum and other smart-contract platforms that allow other coins to be built on top of their infrastructure. These coins can interact with others on the platform, but cannot interact with other platforms like Stella, Bitcoin, cardano - and so on. Also most Gen 2 blockchains are also using Proof of Work likes Bitcoin, which effects scaling.
Gen 3 blockchains are using Proof of Stake to ensure scaling, Sidechains to allow the platform to interact with other platforms, like ethereum and bitcoin, and also include smart contracts that are developer friendly.
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity working on Cardano is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain. (from https://www.cardano.org/en/help-support/)
What is the difference between PoS and PoW? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half the network agrees, then the transaction is validated. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner solves an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano? Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
What is staking Cardano is a Proof of Stake protocol, and uses already existing coins like a marker to ensure security. The protocol chooses a coin at random and the owner of that coin is elected to validate a block of transactions. Staking is the process of adding your ADA coins to a Pool that has the resources to run the network. If the pool you have chosen to "delegate" your stake to is chosen to close/validate a block, then you get a portion of the rewards. The ADA never leaves your wallet, and you can "undelegate" whenever you like. this increases stability of the network and also gives an incentive to pool operators to invest the time and hardware required to run a pool.
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. Currently there are 1200 registered stake pools while 300 are creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? If you had ADA in a Yoroi or Daedalus wallet before November 2019 then yes, you can stake. However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until August 18 (hopefully) for pools to start creating blocks, and first staking rewards will be 5 days later.
Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet - Or Daedalus ITN, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? At the moment the Incentivised Test Net (ITN) is delivering 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic. However it should not be completely dissimilar from the ITN, with most speculating 6%-10%pa compounding weekly….at this point there is no solid answer
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 100 pools with a 10,00ADA pledge will be overall less profitable than 1 pool with 1,000,000 ADA pledge. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atilia, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles is often cited in the media as the Co-founder of Ethereum, but only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? There is no official word specifically as to why Cardano is not on Coinbase, However there prevailing theory is that Coinbase requires the coins to be decentralised. and as Cardano is still being developed, it will not be added Shelley is released, or possibly never, it is totally up to coinbase. However Charles did mention in an AMA that IOG has been working with many exchanges for the Shelley rollout.
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
Cardano does have a dedicated community driven wiki
https://cardanowiki.info/wiki/Home
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

Cardano FAQ - V1 - Feedback requested

Cardano FAQ
What is Cardano? - Cardano is an open source highly secure blockchain 3.0 project being developed by IOHK. Development and research started in 2015, with the 1.0 mainnet launching in 2017. Cardano blockchain is currently being developed into two layers. The first one is the ledger of account values and the second one is the reason why values are transferred from one account to the other.
  1. Cardano Settlement Layer (CSL) - The CSL acts as the ledger of account or balance ledger. This is an idea created as an improvement of bitcoin blockchain. It uses a proof-of-stake consensus algorithm to generate new blocks and confirm transactions.
  2. Cardano Computation Layer (CCL) - The CCL contains the data how values are transferred. Since the computation layer is not connected to balance ledger, users of the CCL can create customized rules when evaluating transactions. (https://support.bitkub.com/hc/en-us/articles/360006678892-What-are-the-two-layers-of-Cardano-)
IHOK has the contract with an undisclosed party to develop the project until the end of 2020, at which point the community may elect another - on the assumption that the voting infrastructure has been completed. However CEO Charles Hoskinson has stated that they will develop the project until it is completed, and they are simply financed until the end of 2020.
Cardano was the first project built on a peer-reviewed scientific development method, resulting in dozens of research papers produced by IOHK. Amongst these papers is Ouroboros Genesis, proving that a Proof of Stake protocol can be just as secure as Proof of Work, which was originally developed for Bitcoin, and refined for Ethereum. This PoS protocol considerably lowers the resources cost to maintain network while still maintaining security and network speed.
Cardano as a financial infrastructure is not yet completed, With significant development to be rolled out.
Who is the team behind Cardano? There are three organisations that are contributing to the development of Cardano. The first is the Cardano Foundation, an objective, non-profit organisation based in Switzerland. Its core responsibilities are to nurture, grow and educate Cardano users and commercial communities, to engage with authorities on regulatory and commercial matters and to act as a blockchain and cryptocurrency standards body. The second entity working on Cardano is IOHK, a leading cryptocurrency research and development company, which holds the contract to develop the platform until 2020. The final business partner is Emurgo, which invests in start-ups and assists commercial ventures to build on the Cardano blockchain. (from https://www.cardano.org/en/help-support/)
What is the difference between PoS and PoW? Both these protocols are known as “consensus protocols” that confirm whether a transaction is valid or invalid without a middleman like Visa or your bank. Every node (active and updated copy of the blockchain) can agree that the transaction did take place legitimately. If more than half the network agrees, then the transaction is validated. Proof-of-Work (PoW) happens when a miner solves an exceptionally difficult math problem and gets credit for adding a verified block to the blockchain. Finding a solution is an arduous guessing game that takes a considerable amount of computing power to compete for the correct answer. It is like “pick a number between 1 and one trillion” and when you get it right, you get $30,000 in Bitcoin, so the more computers you have working on it, the faster you can solve it. Also the more people who are trying to solve the same block, the harder the algorithm, so it may become 1 in 20 trillion. The downside is the massive amounts of power required to run the computers that run the network, and the slow pace that blocks are solved. To “Hack” a PoW system, you need 51% of the computing power, which would allow you to deny transactions, or spend the same coin twice.
PoS instead selects a coin at random that already exists, and the person who owns that coin is elected to put the work in to validate the block. This means there is no contest and no guessing game. Some computer power is required, but only a fraction of a PoW system. The complex nature of selecting a coin that exists on the correct and longest chain and is owned by someone who can complete the block, AND in such a way that it is secure AND that computer currently running AND that person also having an incentive to complete the work, has made the development of PoS very slow. However only a few years ago it wasn’t even possible. In this method, the more of the coin (ADA) you stake, the more likely you are to be selected to close a block. Cardano also allows you to delegate your stake to someone else to validate the block so they do the work, and you share in the reward for doing so.
To “hack” a PoS blockchain you need to own 51% of the tokens, which is significantly harder than owning 51% of the computing power.
What is ADA and how is it different to Cardano?
Cardano is the name of the network infrastructure, and can be thought of like a rail network. ADA is the native token that has been developed alongside Cardano to facilitate the network operation. This helps confusion and maintains distinction, compared to Ethereum being the native token of Ethereum. Similar to bitcoin or any other token, ADA can be sent peer to peer as payment, but is also the reward for running the network, and what is taken as transaction fees.
In this metaphor “Cardano” is the train tracks, that everything runs on. A stake pool would be the locomotive, facilitating transactions on the network while ADA is the coal that powers the locomotive. The train carriages are Decentralised applications (Dapps) that are also running on cardano tracks, but are not actively powering the network.
Can I Stake my ADA right now? If you had ADA in a Yoroi or Daedalus wallet before November 2019 then yes, you can stake. However if you have just purchased some or it was held on an exchange, then you will need to wait until August 18 (hopefully) for the release of the full staking capability. Where do I stake my ADA? Daedalus Flight wallet - Or Daedalus ITN, and Yoroi Wallet (as a chrome extension) are the current best options.
What are the staking rewards now and what can I expect on a return in the future? At the moment the Incentivised Test Net (ITN) is delivering 10%-15%pa returns on average. The future of staking will most likely be lower, but will depend on the amount of ADA staked across the network and the amount of network traffic. However it should not be completely dissimilar from the ITN, with most speculating 6%-10%pa compounding weekly….at this point there is no solid answer
What is a stake-pool and how does it work? A stake pool is where the computing power of the network takes place. Currently there are 1200 registered stake pools while 300 are creating blocks. You can manage your own stake-pool or delegate your ADA to an already registered pool. Rewards are determined by the protocol, however the pool may elect to charge fee Percentages, or flat rate fee to upkeep their pool.
what is a Pledge? To stop one person operating many pools, the rewards that a pool earns will vary depending on the amount of personal ADA they “pledge” to open the pool. This means that 100 pools with a 10,00ADA pledge will be overall less profitable than 1 pool with 1,000,000 ADA pledge. (at least that is the theory)
Who is IOHK? IOHK is a for-profit software engineering company founded by CEO Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood in 2015 that has taken a scientific approach to the development of blockchain. IOHK started with “first principles” and looked at questions like “what is a blockchain” and “what should a blockchain be able to do” rather than accepting the established paradigm of Bitcoin and Ethereum. IOHK was originally Input Output Hong Kong, but is now Input Output Global and is based in Wyoming USA employing over 230 staff. IOHK has established research labs in several universities in order to complete the Cardano project, and is also developing Ethereum Classic, Atilia, Mantis and possibly other Blockchain related programs and infrastructure.
Who is Charles? Charles Hoskinson is an American entrepreneur and cryptocurrency specialist. Charles is often cited in the media as the Co-founder of Ethereum, but only worked on that project for approximately six-months. Charles is now the CEO of IOHK and the director of The Bitcoin Education Project.
Why isn’t ADA on coinbase? Coinbase requires the coins to essentially be “finished” and as Cardano is still being developed, it will not be added until there is more development rolled out.
Why Doesn’t Cardano have a Wikipedia Page? Wikipedia has strict guidelines on what can be turned into an article. As there has been no coverage of Cardano from mainstream media or “noteworthy” sources, there is no article yet. Wikipedia will also not accept sources from IOHK as they are not considered “reliable” and must come from a third party. This will most likely change soon.
submitted by YourBestMateRobbo to cardano [link] [comments]

What is your opinion on Binance.Us? I just finished verification and bought a few hundred in BTC. Looking to buy a Ledger nano S soon.

Any advice is much welcomed. I have known about bitcoin forever but mainly stuck to index funds since I didn’t know how btc works. Now with the extra time I been balls deep reading as much as I can about btc. Still can’t find a definitive place on the best exchange -hence the question - is Binance us good compared to other exchanges ? The buy fee seems to be 0.5%. I saw in FAQ that kraken is cheaper. Should I switch?
submitted by paradigm44 to BitcoinBeginners [link] [comments]

A Deep Dive Into IRS Crypto Audits (Podcast & Highlights)

Hey all - the newest episode of The BitcoinTaxes Podcast is live. For anyone unfamiliar, it's a podcast where I interview experts in the crypto/blockchain/fintech spaces. In this episode I speak with a tax controversy lawyer about how to handle a CI agent showing up at your door about your crypto, and what to do to avoid getting to that point.
Full disclosure, I work for BitcoinTaxes and also host this podcast. I typically post my interviews to our own subreddit and one or two other subreddits (not trying to spam people). This subreddit's community seems to enjoy/engage with the episodes when I post them. If there's any issue with me posting here please let me know, otherwise I hope you guys enjoy this episode and gain some valuable knowledge. Feel free to hit me with any questions and I can relay them to Alex.
----
Links:
Podcast Page Link
Audio Only

Brief Summary:
This episode's guest is Alex Kugelman. Alex is a tax controversy lawyer with expertise in cryptocurrency and IRS audits. Alex is a frequent guest on this podcast - back in July 2019 he came on the show to discuss the IRS Educational Letters that were being sent out. Before that, in May, he shared some excellent information about IRS cryptocurrency audits. Today, he elaborates on these topics and goes in-depth about what could happen in a potential crypto audit.
Alex provides tips in the case of an IRS CI agent showing up at your door, revisits compliance post-2019 IRS FAQ update, and gives us his take on the effect of COVID-19 in taxes and crypto.

Some good quotes:
"In the past year, what I've seen, the single common element of all IRS criminal investigations relating to cryptocurrency is that there is evidence that there have been sales of cryptocurrency and it cannot be reconciled to the tax return." (07:10)
"I think it's very likely that exchanges are providing information to the government if it's requested, especially U S based exchanges that are trying to be in the good graces of regulators." (09:44)

EPISODE HIGHLIGHTS AND DISCUSSION

Don't Under-Estimate Over-Reporting (03:12)

Alex: I'm a big believer of over-reporting, which means give as much detail as you possibly can. I think a lot of people get into trouble. They go: “Oh, I reported my transactions”... and you look at the tax return and it's a single line that says “cryptocurrency” and the net number. You have to think through objectively. I've not seen an issue where the IRS has taken a really hard position on lost records as long as you're making reasonable assumptions and using fair market value data.

A CI Agent's M.O. (10:30)

Alex: CI's agents are fairly sophisticated. If they have some information, and they can see these different transfers to different exchanges or wallets - they can piece it together and there's nothing to stop them from going and getting that data at that point as well. That's why I think it's really important that people...try to do the most reasonable good faith effort because it's hard to make a criminal case out of an accounting error. It's much easier to make a criminal case when someone's sold hundreds of thousands of dollars of cryptocurrency and then transferred that fiat into a U S bank account.

Unmatched Trades and Missing Data (12:16)

Alex: The more transactions that you have...with missing information...could lead to more questions. The question becomes where or how did you obtain this cryptocurrency and why is it that you don't have records?
A very common example is Mt. Gox. The exchange goes down, the records go down. That's really common. If that's the story, I wouldn't be worried about it. But, if you were being paid in cryptocurrency for a couple of years, never reported it as income, and now you're selling it - that's more problematic. It could lead to issues down the line.

CI Agents Paying You A Visit (14:35)

Alex: A lot of times when a CI agent shows up it's meant to catch people off guard. If a CI agent is showing up at your door regarding cryptocurrency, it means they already have information that they believe there was a crime and that would lead to a conviction of a crime. So you're not going to explain that away in an hour long conversation in your living room. It's not going to happen. That's not the way it works.
There's always going to be two agents, because one is going to be a witness for this conversation. You just need to remember: decline the interview. There's nothing wrong with that. Get a card and: “my counsel will contact you”. That's it.
The other thing to keep in mind that's really important is that you don't want to start doing things that are new crimes. You don't want to go in and start destroying records or erasing emails. Taking those kinds of steps is only going to make it worse.

Coronavirus, Audits, and Amended Returns (31:05)

Alex: The IRS is, for the most part, shutdown. That means that they're not really issuing new audits right now. It also means that the forced collections, when you owe money to the IRS and they levy your bank account or issue liens - that’s not going on right now. So for clients or for taxpayers who owe the IRS money...if they are currently in an installment agreement with the IRS, then actually they can forego those monthly payments right now.
The IRS is already an underfunded agency, and it was affected by the government shutdown recently. There's really a big backlog to begin with. I mean it's hard to estimate how much this [virus] is going to affect the administration of tax compliance. I think it's a great time to amend a tax return or to get into compliance.
submitted by Sal-BitcoinTax to BitcoinMarkets [link] [comments]

Welcome to r/Kryll_io - Quick User Guide / Useful ressources. All you need to know to get started

Welcome to this Quick User Guide. If you're new to Kryll you'll find here guides, useful links and resources to get you started on the platform!
What is Kryll?
kryll is a platform that offers powerful automated trading tools (click links to get more info) :
  1. An editor that uses blocks to create strategies without coding skills.
  2. A strategies marketplace where you can rent strategies created by experienced traders. You can also monetize your own strategy.
  3. Smart Trading : Create easily a Stop-Loss take Profits, a smart buy (buy at the best moment), smart sell (sell at the best moment).
  4. A swap feature in your portfolio. This allows you to sell your currencies without having to log on your exchanges.
LINKS :
GUIDES :
HOW TO LINK YOUR EXCHANGES APIs TO YOUR KRYLL ACCOUNT :
HOW TO GET KRL
SOCIAL NETWORKS
TELEGRAM CHANNELS
USEFUL RESOURCES
SUPPORT
If you need support, you can go through our ticket system by email at [[email protected]](mailto:[email protected])
submitted by kryll_io to Kryll_io [link] [comments]

"Tough Day For Us At Twitter": Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey Gives Lowdown On Massive Hack

This is the best tl;dr I could make, original reduced by 67%. (I'm a bot)
A massive hack - described as "a coordinated social engineering attack" by Twitter - targeted multiple high-profile users last night including ex-US President Barack Obama, Tesla's Elon Musk, investor Warren Buffet and Amazon's Jeff Bezos.
Twitter CEO Jack Dorsey responded to the attack this morning, saying it was a "Tough day for us at Twitter".
In an extraordinary measure, Twitter disabled the validated accounts from posting tweets for about two hours after scammers trying to dupe people into sending cryptocurrency bitcoin hijacked the users' profiles.
"This is a SCAM, DO NOT participate!" Gemini cryptocurrency exchange co-founder Cameron Winklevoss warned from his official account on Twitter.
This is not the first time that Twitter has reported a massive hack.
Last August, a series of insulting or racist messages were posted on the personal account of Twitter founder Dorsey without his knowledge.
Summary Source | FAQ | Feedback | Top keywords: account#1 Twitter#2 Dorsey#3 happened#4 tweet#5
Post found in /news.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic. Please do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
submitted by autotldr to autotldr [link] [comments]

QUADRIGA 2.0 = COINBERRY?

TL;DR- A "Canadian" crypto exchange has been blowing off customers while their accounts and funds are frozen. Their company isn't trading in Canada, their PR hlooks grandiose but in fact isn't impressive at all, and they are now lying to customers about the reason for the delays.
FULL BREAKDOWN
Coinberry uses "trusted by the Canadian Government" as their main call-to-action and as leverage to gain your business due to their partnership with two municipalities (Richmond Hill and Innisfil township) Townships are NOT part of the Canadian Federal Government, they are municipalities. Municipalities are autonomous. The Canadian federal government and LOCAL government aren't the same thing, that is fraudulent representation.
The mayor of Innisfil has been known to accept gifts from companies trying to get in his favour. Only 5% of CANADIANS- not Innisfil residents, hold cryptocurrency. So, in a town of 36K people, where the majority of the population is 50+ in age, how many are likely to hold bitcoin? Coinberry is the only one benefiting from this; they get to say they've partnered with a township, and if anyone actually wanted to pay property tax in Bitcoin then they need to sign up with Coinberry.
The special information package tells Innisfil residents that "Coinberry has fully supportive, transparent and CDIC insured segregated banking in Canada (page 2/26) A quick Google search will tell you that's false - the CDIC does NOT cover digital currencies as of April 30th, 2020. The document linked stating this was made in 2019. How much did this mayor get paid to lie to his citizens?! I doubt he'd do it for free.
They leverage being PIPEDA compliant, yet all you need is a self assessment tool. It's based on opinion, yet it's their first selling point. It's a garbage selling point that gives false confidence to potential clients.
FINTRAC REGISTRY AND THEIR SHELL COMPANY IN MALTA
They claim to be the only FINTRAC registered company. Nope. A quick search of other crypto exchanges in the FINTRAC lookup proves that claim wrong: https://www10.fintrac-canafe.gc.ca/msb-esm/public/msb-search/search-by-name/
Their privacy policy mentions a parent company. Their parent company is listed on FINTRAC as CB INTERNATIONAL LIMITED, and is based in Malta. For those of you who aren't aware, Malta is well known for being the best place to set up shell companies in order to avoid taxes and protect CEOs from lawsuits after "their" money. This was NOT the case for Kraken, Newton or Shakepay. Only Coinberry feels they need a shell company in another country.
They have 4 companies listed, all Coinberry. All 4 listings show Coinberrys agent activities listed as money transferring, and 2 of them are listed as agents of CB INTERNATIONAL LIMITED (the parent company). This parent company is located in Malta and has listed its activities as foreign exchange and money transferring. This means all of the exchanges happening are actually happening in MALTA not Canada.
They seem to be the only exchange (with Canadian HQ) doing this: Kraken, Newton and Shakepay list their agent activities as foreign exchange dealing, and all are registered IN CANADA. This implies your money is also staying in Canada on their platforms.
Where there is smoke, there is fire.
edit: added a TL;DR, took out unnecessary sentences, cleaned up wording. I was pissed when I wrote this. I just want to see Coinberry suits come clean about the delays. Tell people why you can't get their money back as soon as you said you would, because this only making crypto even scarier for new adopters.
submitted by cosmicariel to Scams [link] [comments]

Reddcoin (#RDD) May 2020 Team Update, or “New Wallets & What to Expect when You’re Expecting PoSV v2”

Link to Medium post -> https://medium.com/@techadept/reddcoin-rdd-may-2020-team-update-or-what-to-expect-when-youre-expecting-posv-v2-b708319221ce?sk=b5eafc57b67327d99a35380f390d77ca
Hey, ReddHeads!
To new ReddHeads, welcome! To old ReddHeads, welcome back! It’s an exciting time in Reddcoin (RDD) for a lot of reasons, and we, the Reddcoin Core development team, wanted to get a brief update out to touch base on some of the highlights.
Attached are some screenshots of our work to enhance security and interoperability, and to extend support to MacOS Catalina in our newest v3.10.1 wallet.
This wallet release also includes components and performance & security upgrades taken from the Bitcoin 0.10 codebase, and we will be following much of that same development and enhancement in our Reddcoin Core wallet in the future, with 0.11 up next.
This release is not a required upgrade (except for Catalina users), but will benefit user experience and security significantly. We’ll be publishing, of course, a full public changelog, hashes and commit list in Github along with open source code and compiled executables upon release.
But the major changes in Reddcoin v3 are just about to start, as PoSV v2 gets ready to activate. Released to the community on 12/24/19, the blockchain has (at time of writing) reached 8197 of the required 9000 block threshold, or 91.08% of our goal of supermajority. If you haven’t upgraded yet, or aren’t staking, it’s time.
After PoSV v2 activation, older (v2.x, v1.x) wallets will not be able to send transactions or stake.
We anticipate activation to be reached within a very short time period, especially once our Mac ReddHeads are able to participate, and as such we want to ensure that information for the general community is available and up to date.
1) AM I GOING TO LOSE MY REDDCOIN (RDD)??
a. NO. This is a soft-fork, and whether you’ve upgraded to a v3 wallet or not, you cannot lose your coins. The blockchain itself will remain the same, it is only the rules of staking that are changing. Older wallets WILL stop functioning immediately after the threshold is passed and PoSV v2 activates, but all that is required at that point to restore functionality is to install the new v3 wallet. If you need help, please join our Telegram or Discord live chats for community or Dev help directly. No ReddHead left behind!
2) WHAT DO I NEED TO DO??
a. If you’re staking, make sure you’re using a v3 wallet, preferably the latest version. Right now, that is v3.0.1, in a few days with the above noted release it will be v3.10.1. You may also wish to use the “Backup…” function at this time to make sure you have a backup of the only important file you need, the “wallet.dat” file. There are no mobile staking options at this time due to the nature of our PoSV protocol, but you can deposit coins in the dev team-run ReddBot on Telegram to stake if you have no other options until a mobile staking option is made available.
b. If you’re not staking, or are holding on Coinomi, or Guarda, or other 3rd party wallets, or on an exchange, or a paper wallet, you will also have no operational issues, but of course you’re encouraged to help secure the network and validate transactions, by starting to stake.
3) I’M BORED. ENTERTAIN ME!
a. OK. As successful as our first meetup was, we agree. Look for an upcoming benefit concert from Reddcoin and hopscotchmafiamusic.com at the end of this month. No, really. Free awesome music, cool people, come have a bit of fun with the ReddHead community virtually!
4) I’M HUNGRY. FEED ME!
a. Well…with the activation of PoSV v2, and the creation of Reddcoin’s self- funded development mechanism, we’re very excited to be able to provide at least some resources and RDD toward the Reddcoin Community Food & Supply Bank initiative in the near future. Reddcoin Core will also be donating any funds received in connection with the above concert event to worthy and working charities, especially if we can convince them to receive RDD (or BTC). Watch for further info about this and other charity initiatives to come. Our own efforts rely on PoSV v2 activation, but will be documented publicly and transparently as they evolve.
5) I WAS USING RDD AND THEN X (or Y or Z) HAPPENED AND NOW I’M BROKE AND SAD AND ANGRY. HELP ME!
a. Perhaps you’ve not heard about Reddcoin’s uniquely conceived “Reddcoin Restitution Fund”. Been hacked? Lost a few coins when your computer crashed or your brother formatted your hard drive? Reddcoin has committed a percentage of PoSV v2 funding to give back to users legitimately affected by events beyond their control.
Cases of extreme stupidity will be vetted on a case by case basis, obviously fraudulent claims will be laughed at, and all cases will be dependent on a reasonable standard of proof and verification. This is also going to be an evolving and good faith approach to giving back to our real ReddHead community, and will require both transparency and abuse-prevention to be successful, but we look forward to being able to help those who deserve and need it. NOTE: Trading and speculative losses aren’t covered in any of this. Obviously.
6) I WANT TO KNOW MORE!
We’re working right now to rebuild our main website www.reddcoin.com into a more informative and resource-rich site, but it’s a good starting point. We are in the process of updating our roadmap to cover the end of 2020 and the future as well, and both of those should be available and will be announced within the next month.
a. www.medium.com/@techadept
b. www.reddcoin.com/reddpaper and https://reddcoin.com/reddpaper-faq/
c. www.twitter.com/@reddcoin
d. www.reddit.com/reddcoin
e. https://t.me/ReddcoinOfficial (Telegram chat)
g. https://www.facebook.com/reddcoin
7) IS TECHADEPT DRINKING WHILE WRITING THIS UPDATE??
a. Yes. Macallan. Fight me.
submitted by TechAdept to reddCoin [link] [comments]

BitPay Wallet FAQ - YouTube Live Bitcoin Trading With DeriBot on Deribit - YouTube 24/7 Live Bitcoin Algo Trading on Deribit Exchange (DeriBot) Bitcoin FAQ: What happened after the gold standard ended in 1971? 24/7 Live Bitcoin Algo Trading on Deribit Exchange (DeriBot)

Exchange currencies with other users at a profitable exchange rate. Free account - no cost for account management. Fast deposits and withdrawals - however and wherever you want. Over 30 digital currencies. Access to the exchange market, cantor, currency wallets and investments About What is bitcoinchange? bitcoinchange is an instant cryptocurrency exchange providing the best crypto-to-crypto rates on the market. Development of the App and Website is a swiss company Filedesign.You can check that by the governement of switzerland here. Frequently asked questions (FAQ) A bitcoin exchange platform is a digital marketplace where traders can buy and sell bitcoins using various currencies like US-Dollar. The exchange acts as a broker between buyers and sellers of cryptocurrencies. Show all Frequently asked questions. Bitcoin Exchange Guide is a hyperactive hybrid of heavy-handed cryptocurrency content curation creators from christened community contributors who focus on delivering today's bitcoin news, cryptoasset user guides and latest blockchain updates. Bitcoin miners are processing transactions and securing the network using specialized hardware and are collecting new bitcoins in exchange. The Bitcoin protocol is designed in such a way that new bitcoins are created at a fixed rate.

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BitPay Wallet FAQ - YouTube

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